History dates the origin of first aid treatment to the 18th century, when drowning was a major cause of deaths and the message of artificial respiration as a means of reviving drowned person was being preached by a physician, William Hawes.
First aid is the first form of treatment that is often given to victims before full medical attention is available. This is because people often stand a higher chance at survival when early medical attention is administered.
Though laymen with little or no training and acquired knowledge in first aid treatment often administer first aid, it has over time proven to be of great help in emergency situations. First aid, therefore, has become an important safety measure that should be carefully considered, especially for schools and homes
If you have once felt stuck on what first aid treatment to administer at any time, the tips below are essential for administering first aid treatment, especially for children in schools and homes. This should guide you on what to do the next time.
When there is a serious head injury and the child is unconscious, it is not advisable to move the child so much. In a case where the child is no longer breathing, you might need to try artificial respiration (cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)) to aid the child in breathing, before quickly seeking professional help. For minor swellings on the head, you can apply some ice and ibuprofen for the pain.
For minor cuts, rinse with water and apply some pressure to the cut and place at an elevated position to stop the bleeding. If the blood soaks the pad used in soaking the blood, you can change it over and over till the bleeding stops. You might need to apply antibiotic ointment if an infection is suspected.
For major wounds, rinse the cut with water, tie with a bandage and seek medical help immediately. Don’t attempt to treat by yourself if the cut is really deep. It might need surgery.
Don’t attempt massaging or washing anything until you see a doctor. You should first of all remove the clothes around the area, and then apply some ice wrapped in a cloth. Please leave the fracture the way you met it. Ensure you don’t try to shift the bones around or replace them. Wrap with a cloth using a splint, which can be in form of a small board or cardboard, to keep the bone in place. Don’t allow the child to eat or drink anything until you have gone to the hospital, in case there is need for surgery.
It is better to prevent animal bites by teaching children how to relate with animals, as well as keeping them away from untrained animals. In the case of a mild bite, wash the affected area with water and soap, add a little pressure to the bite to stop bleeding and when the bleed stops, you can add an antibiotic ointment. Cover the wound afterwards with a gauze or bandage. The child might need to take some injections against infection, so there will still be need to see a doctor.
For bites from wild animals, seek medical attention right away.
Burns are not as mild as they often seem. Remove clothes around the burn and run over cool water (not cold). When the pain eases, cover with gauze lightly and seek medical attention immediately. Don’t apply any ointment before seeing the doctor.
Make the child sit upright and loosen any tight clothing. Immediately administer the inhaler for recovery. If the patient has none handy, you can borrow from someone else. Always ensure that there is an inhaler in your first aid box, in case of a situation where a victim misplaces his/hers. As a preventive measure, be well acquainted with the medical directives given to the children, to avoid delays.
Loosen any tight clothing and ensure the place is well ventilated, whether the child has fainted or is about to faint. Then, wipe the face with a cool washcloth and seek medical attention immediately.
To prevent a fainting child from fainting, let the child sit with his/her head between the knees. If the child has already fainted, have the child lie with the feet slightly elevated. Don’t move the child if fainting was as a result of a fall, unless when going to the hospital.
Tilt the head up slightly and pinch the soft part of the nose for at least 10 minutes.
Administer Oral Rehydration solution every 15mins for babies and ice or lime/ lemon soda for toddlers and older kids. Both age groups should be given I tablet of Zinc to restore lost electrolytes. Do not give a child who is vomiting, milk or solid food. Seek medical attention as soon as possible
For loss of permanent teeth, put the teeth together and head off to see a dentist. You can store the teeth in saline water or the child’s saliva and carry along to see the doctor. For older children, try putting the teeth back into the roots and have the child bite hard on gauze to keep it in place. Babies can be given ice pops to reduce the swelling.